Engineering Chemistry Notes Pdf
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Water and its treatment: Introduction – hardness of water – causes of hardness – types of hardness: temporary and permanent – expression and units of hardness – Estimation of hardness of water by complexometric method. Numerical problems. Potable water and its specifications- Steps involved in the treatment of potable water – Disinfection of potable water by chlorination and Ozonization. Defluoridation – Nalgonda technique – Determination of F- ion by ion- selective electrode method.
Boiler troubles: sludges, scales, and Caustic embrittlement. Internal treatment of Boiler feed water – Calgon conditioning – Phosphate conditioning – Colloidal conditioning – Softening of water by ion-exchange processes. Desalination of water – Reverse osmosis. Numerical problems – Sewage water – Steps involved in treatment of sewage.
UNIT – II
Electrochemistry: Electrode- electrode potential, standard electrode potential, types of electrodes – Construction and functioning of Standard hydrogen electrode, calomel and glass electrode. Nernst equation – electrochemical series and its applications. Electrochemical cells: Daniel cell – cell notation, cell reaction, and cell emf -– Concept of concentration cells – Electrolyte concentration cell –Numerical problems.
Batteries: Cell and battery – Primary battery (dry cell, alkaline cell and Lithium cell) and Secondary battery (lead acid, Ni-Cd and lithium ion cell), Fuel cells: Hydrogen –oxygen and methanol-oxygen fuel cells – Applications.
UNIT – III
Polymers: Definition – Classification of polymers with examples – Types of polymerization – addition (free radical addition) and condensation polymerization with examples.
Plastics: Definition and characteristics- thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics, compounding, and fabrication of plastics (compression and injection moulding). Preparation, Properties, and engineering applications of PVC and Bakelite.
Fibers: Characteristics of fibers – preparation, properties and applications of Nylon-6,6 and Dacron. Fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) – Applications.
Rubbers: Natural rubber and its vulcanization – compounding of rubber.
Elastomers: Characteristics –preparation – properties and applications of Buna-S, Butyl and Thiokol rubber.
Conducting polymers: Characteristics and Classification with examples-mechanism of conduction in trans-polyacetylene and applications of conducting polymers.
Biodegradable polymers: Concept and advantages – Polylactic acid and poly vinyl alcohol and their applications.
UNIT – IV
Fuels & Combustion: Classification- solid fuels: coal – analysis of coal – proximate and ultimate analysis and their significance. Liquid fuels – petroleum and its refining, cracking – types – moving bed catalytic cracking. Knocking – octane and cetane rating, synthetic petrol – Fischer-Tropsch’s process; Gaseous fuels – composition and uses of natural gas, LPG and CNG. Combustion: Definition, Calorific value of fuel – HCV, LCV; Calculation of air quantity required for combustion of a fuel.
UNIT – V
Cement: Portland cement, its composition, setting and hardening of Portland cement.
Special cements: White cement, water proof cement, High alumina cement, and Acid resistant cement.
Refractories: Classification, characteristics of good refractories, Refractoriness, refractoriness under load, porosity, and chemical inertness – applications of refractories.
Lubricants: Classification of lubricants with examples-characteristics of a good lubricants – mechanism of lubrication (thick film, thin film and extreme pressure)- properties of lubricants: viscosity, cloud point, pour point, flash point and fire point.
Composites: Introduction- Constituents of composites – advantages, classification and constituents of composites. Applications of composites.
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